زندگی پس از مرگ

نوع مقاله: ترویجی

نویسنده

هیئت علمی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

چکیده
این مقاله پنج بخش دارد. در بخش اول دربارۀ اهمیت زندگی پس از مرگ بحث می‌شود. بخش دوم به امکان زندگی پس از مرگ از دیدگاه دوگانه‌انگاری میان نفس و بدن و بخش سوم به امکان زندگی پس از مرگ از دیدگاه مادی‌انگارانه اختصاص دارد. در بخش چهارم قرائن تجربی برای زندگی پس از مرگ بررسی می‌شود. در بخش پنجم دلایلی برای این نظر اقامه می‌شود که معقول بودن باورها دربارۀ زندگی پس از مرگ به معقول بودن اعتقادات مابعدالطبیعی وابسته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Afterlife

نویسنده [English]

  • هدایت علوی تبار
چکیده [English]

Abstract
There are five sections in this article. In the first, we discuss about the importance of afterlife. Section two considers the possibility of survival from the standpoint of mind-body dualism and section three deals with the possibility of survival on a materialistic view. Section four addresses the afterlife in terms of empirical evidence. In section five, reasons are advanced for thinking that the reasonability of beliefs about an afterlife depends on the reasonability of metaphysical convictions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • immortality
  • dualism
  • materialism
  • Parapsychology

Bailey, Lee W. and Jenny Yates (eds.), 1996, The Near Death Experience: A Reader, New York: Routledge.
Baker, Lynne Rudder, 2000, Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
–––, 2001, “Material Persons and the Doctrine of Resurrection”, Faith and Philosophy, 18 (2): 151–67.
–––, 2005, “Death and the Afterlife”, in William Wainwright (ed.), 2001, The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 366–91.
Batthyany, Alexander and Avshalom Elitzur (eds.), 2009, Irreducibly Conscious: Selected Papers on Consciousness, Heidelberg: Universitaetsverlag Winter.
Becker, Ernest, 1973, The Denial of Death, New York: The Free Press.
Blackmore, Susan, 1993, Dying to Live, Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
Blum, Deborah, 2006, Ghost Hunters: William James and the Search for Scientific Proof of Life After Death, New York: Penguin Press.
Braude, Stephen A., 2002, “The Problem of Super Psi”, in F. Steinkamp (ed.), 2002, Parapsychology, Philosophy, and the Mind: Essays Honoring John Beloff, London: McFarland and Company.
Broad, C.D., 1953, Religion, Philosophy, and Psychical Research, New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Company.
Corcoran, Kevin, 2005, “The Constitution View of Persons”, in Joel B. Green and Stuart Palmer, eds., 2005, In Search of the Soul: Four Views of the Mind-Body Problem, Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, pp. 153–76.
Collins, Robin, 1999, “Eastern Religions”, in Michael Murray (ed.), 1999, Reason for the Hope Within, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, pp. 182–216.
Cullman, Oscar, 1955, “Immortality of the Soul or Resurrection of the Dead: The Witness of the New Testament”, in Krister Stendahl (ed.), 1965, Immortality and Resurrection: Death in the Western World: Two Conflicting Currents of Thought, New York: Macmillan, pp. 9–53.
Dworkin, Ronald, 2013, Religion without God, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Gallup, G. and W. Proctor, 1982, Adventures in immortality: a look beyond the threshold of death. New York, McGraw Hill, pp. 198–200. “Have you, yourself, ever been on the verge of death or had a ‘close call’ which involved any unusual experience at that time?”. Nationally 15% responded ”yes”.
Griffin, David Ray, 1997, Parapsychology, Philosophy, and Spirituality: A Postmodern Exploration. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Habermas, Gary R., 1996, “Near Death Experiences and the Evidence—A Review Essay”, Christian Scholar’s Review, 26 (1): 78–85.
Hartshorne, Charles, 1962, The Logic of Perfection and Other Essays in Neoclassical Metaphysics, La Salle, Ill.: Open Court.
Hasker, William, 1989, God, Time and Knowledge, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
–––, 1999, The Emergent Self, Ithaca: Cornell University Press
–––, 2011, “Materialism and the Resurrection: Are the Prospects Improving?”, European Journal for the Philosophy of Religion, 3:1: 83–103.
Heim, Albert von st. Gallen, 1892, “Notizen über den Tod durch absturz”, Jahrbuch des Schweizer Alpenclub, 27: 327–37. Trans. and Intro. by Roy Kletti and Russell Noyes, Jr., “The Experiences of Dying from Falls”, Omega, 3 (1972): 45–52.
Hick, John, 1983, Philosophy of Religion, 3rd Edition. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Jansen, K.L.R., 1997, “The ketamine model of the near-death experience: A central role for the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor”, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 16: 5–26.
Kierkegaard, Søren, 1845, “At a Graveside”, Howard Hong and Edna Hong (trans.), 1993, Three Discourses on Imagined Occasions, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 69–102.
Koons, Robert C. and George Bealer (eds.), 2010, The Waning of Materialism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moody, Raymond, 1975, Life After Life, New York: Bantam/Mockingbird.
Moreland, J. P. and Gary Habermas, 1998, Beyond Death: Exploring the Evidence for Immortality, Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books.
Noyes, R., 1972, “The experience of dying”, Psychiatry, 35: 174–184.
Perry, John, 1978, A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality, Indianapolis: Hackett.
Potts, Michael, 2002, “The Evidential Value of Near-Death Experiences for Belief in Life after Death”, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20 (4): 233–258.
Price, H.H., 1953, “Survival and the Idea of ‘Another World’”, Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 50 (182): 1–25. Reprinted in John Hick (ed.), 1970, Classical and Contemporary Readings in the Philosophy of Religion, second edition, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, pp. 370–93. Page references to Hick 1970.
Ring, Kenneth, 1980, Life at Death: A Scientific Investigation of the Near-Death Experience, New York: Coward, McCann, and Geoghegan.
Sabom, Michael, 1982, Recollections of Death: A Medical Investigation, New York: Harper and Row.
–––, 1998, Light and Death: One Doctor’s Fascinating Account of Near-Death Experiences, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Schlick, Moritz, 1936, “Meaning and Verification”, The Philosophical Review, 45: 339–369.
Singer, Peter, 1993, How are we to live? New South Wales: Random House Australia.
Steinkamp, Fiona (ed.), 2002, Parapsychology, Philosophy, and the Mind: Essays Honoring John Beloff, London: McFarland and Company.
van Inwagen, Peter, 1992 [1978], “The Possibility of Resurrection”, International Journal for the Philosophy of Religion, 9 (1978): 114–21. Reprinted in Paul Edwards (ed.), Immortality, New York: Macmillan, 1992, pp. 242–46. (Page references are to Edwards (ed.) 1992.)
van Lommel, Pim, Ruud van Wees, Vincent Meyers, and Ingrid Elfferich, 2001, “Near-Death Experiences in Survivors of Cardiac Arrest: A Prospective Study in the Netherlands”. Lancet, 358 (9298): 2039–2045.
Wielenberg, Erik J., 2013, “God and the Meaning of Life”, in Joshua W. Seachris (ed.), Exploring the Meaning of Life: An Anthology and Guide, Madden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 335–352.
Zaleski, Carol, 1987, Otherworld Journeys: Accounts of Near-Death Experiences in Medieval and Modern Times, New York: Oxford University Press.
Zimmerman, Dean A., 1999, “The Compatibility of Materialism and Survival: The ‘Falling Elevator’ Model”, Faith and Philosophy, 16 (2): 194–212.
–––, 2010, “Bodily Resurrection: The Falling Elevator Model Revisited”, in George Gasser (ed.), Personal Identity and Resurrection: How Do We Survive Our Death? Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 51–66.
ابزارهای آموزشی
How to cite this entry.
Preview the PDF version of this entry at the Friends of the SEP Societ.
Look up this entry topic at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project (InPhO).
Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPapers, with links to its database.
منابع اینترنتی دیگر
Augustine, Keith, 2008, Hallucinatory Near-Death Experiences, extensive critical survey of the evidence concerning NDEs.
Near-Death Experience, a brief presentation of a skeptical view of NDEs.
مدخل‎های مرتبط
1.death | dualism | heaven and hell in Christian thought | mind: in Indian Buddhist Philosophy |physicalism | religion: philosophy of | soul, ancient theories of