عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Today, proving that most of the doctrines of the modern humanities is incompatible with the Islamic teachings and that enhancing development in it is necessary, is not an easy task. What is harder and more difficult is description of this point that how can this development, not by a superficial attitude and recourse to the Qur’anic verses and Islamic traditions, but by appealing to the Islamic thought and learning which is the outcome of centuries of scholarly activities of Muslim intellectuals and strong interaction with contemporary thoughts, be taken place?. Although bringing such a development requires the help of a large number of the Islamic traditional sciences, the present article is just aimed at dealing with the manner and extent of contributing “the contemporary Islamic philosophy” in the development of modern humanities.
In the traditional classification of knowledge, “First Philosophy”, because of admittance of the hierarchical nature of knowledge, was considered as the “mother of sciences” so that, epistemologically, it could support all other sciences. With the decline of metaphysics in the modern times as well as inculcating the idea that the ontology has ended up, the philosophy as ontology was formally excluded and its priority over other sciences was challenged; but, materialistic ontology, behind a curtain, became an underlying basis of sciences and by predominance of presuppositions as material, taking the existence of humans as divergent, and the exclusion of ultimate causality in analyzing human realities, the philosophical independence and principality of much of the discussions related to humanities, were questioned. Also, the idea of conventionality and adherence to fictitious entities dominated, reducing the discussions of these groups of sciences to a series of physical and conventional issues combined with materialistic presuppositions concerning the essence of human being.
Describing the model of ontological study in exploring specific affairs, this article attempts to demonstrate that how “applied ontologies” can be a justified model for scholarship in the sphere of “applied philosophies” (philosophy of psychology, philosophy of economics, and so on), and how progress in modern humanities would be in need of such applied philosophies. Likewise, showing cases of the realization of such applied ontologies in the history of Islamic thought, as well as giving instances of introducing such topics in criticizing and refinement of modern humanities,makes the practical possibility of such a model more obvious.